Here is a graphic from the FM for claymores and outlines the safe distances. | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com. PADMINE is an anti-personnel directional fragmentation mine produced by the United Kingdom, similar to the Claymore in cosmetic design with two swivelling legs, inserted into soft-ground. [1], The original M18 mine fell far short of Picatinny's requirements. Military investigators determined that the mine was deliberately placed in the window and detonated to kill Esposito and Allen. When the mines are daisy-chained together, one firing device can detonate several mines. It was awarded a pre-production contract for 1,000 M18A1 Claymores, designated T-48E1 during testing. The sighting for the device was originally intended to be a cheap pentaprism device, which would allow the user to look down from above and see the sight picture. Canada fielded a weapon called the "Phoenix" landmine, which used the Misznay–Schardin effect to project a spray of 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) steel cubes towards the enemy. The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. MacLeod's case collapsed when photographs of the German Trenchmine prototype were produced as evidence of prior art.[1]. The advantage of such a weapon was in the wide dispersal of lethal steel ball bearings up to a distance of 100 yards. There are field-expedient methods of detonating the mine by tripwire, or by a timer, but these are rarely used. A layer of tinfoil was added between the fragmentation matrix and the explosive. MacLeod designed a weapon called the T-48; broadly similar to the final M18A1, it lacked a number of the design details that made the M18A1 effective. Later when production was ramped up, the design was changed to flat steel scissor, folding-type legs. After a number of experiments, the engineers settled on Devcon-S steel-filled epoxy to hold the balls in place. The M57 device (known as a "clacker") was held in the hand and featured a trigger that was squeezed a number of times by the Claymore operator to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy using an armature and magnets. On both sides of the sight are fuse wells set at 45 degrees. Its lethality out to 50 metres arrives in the form of 650 steel balls and it is activated by remote control or trip wire. The Claymore fires steel balls, out to about 100 m (110 yd) within a 60° arc in front of the device. The M-MPIMS is designed to be more controllable than the Claymore with less collateral damage, using an insensitive munitions explosive that is poured rather than packed for more uniform distribution results in more consistent blast pattern. The case has the words \"Front Toward Enemy\" embossed on the front of the mine. The screenplay for Rambo was written by Art Monterastelli and Sylvester Stallone. The M68 kit is designed to familiarize personnel with the placement and arming of a real M18 directional mine. It is also used against unarmored vehicles. [1], Minor modifications were made to the mine during its service. The team at Aerojet were given access to all previous research into directional mines, including the M18 and the Phoenix, as well as German research. The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine used by the U.S. military.Its inventor, Norman MacLeod, named the mine after a large Scottish medieval sword. The device weighed 5 pounds and shot 700 steel cubes 40 feet. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Step 2: Review a batch file for starting Claymore Dual Miner setx GPU_FORCE_64BIT_PTR 0 setx GPU_MAX_HEAP_SIZE 100 setx GPU_USE_SYNC_OBJECTS 1 setx GPU_MAX_ALLOC_PERCENT 100 setx GPU_SINGLE_ALLOC_PERCENT 100 EthDcrMiner64.exe -epool eu1.ethermine.org:4444 -eworker YOUR_RIG_NAME -ewal YOUR_WALLET ADDRESS -epsw x The M18 claymore mine is maybe not a household name but I would bet it’s close to it now a days thanks to Hollywood , books and people with hands on experience in the population. [1], Technical challenges to overcome included developing a case to contain the corrosive C-3 explosive that would be durable enough to withstand months of field handling in wide temperature ranges. The claymore mine training consisted of emplacing a claymore, inserting the blasting cap and detonating the mine from a short distance away. [1], Kincheloe immediately suggested using softer 1⁄8-inch (3.2 mm) steel "gingle" balls, which were used in the foundry process. The mine was planted in the ground, using its three sharp legs, and aimed in the direction of enemy approach; at that point, it was fitted with an electrical blasting cap. A number of licensed and unlicensed copies of the mine have been produced. Rear-safety distance has been decreased to 15 m (49 ft) and shelf life has been increased to 25 years.[8]. A bandolier is issued for the carrying of M18 Claymores and also contains an instruction sheet. [1], Following the massed Chinese attacks during the Korean War, Canada and the United States began to develop projects to counter them. Secondly, the blast "leaked" between the balls, reducing their velocity. Around 1952 Norman MacLeod, at his company the Calord Corporation, began working on a small directional mine for use by infantry. It was used in small numbers in Vietnam from around 1961. 9. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control and shoots a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun. Detonation can only be initiated by a shockwave, such as when a detonator inserted into it is fired. With the 16 meter danger area of a Claymore, the backblast of the explosive can cause concussion injuries of personnel, even when they are under cover. The M18A1 Claymore mine has a horizontally convex gray-green plastic case (inert training versions are light blue or green with a light blue band). An electrical blasting cap for triggering the mine was inserted through a small hole in the side. In the Vietnam War, the mine was used by the United States Army with effect against NVA (North Vietnamese Army) and VC (Viet Cong) forces along commonly used jungle trails during ambush missions. A claymore mine is command detonated only, meaning the firing device must be manually triggered. (1) Claymore mines can be used for demolition against thin-skinned buildings and walls, or the 1 1/2 pounds of composition C4 can be removed from the mine and used as an explosive, if authorized. In total the mine weighed about 2.43-pound (1.10 kg), and could be fitted with an optional peep sight for aiming. b. Connect the firing wire to the firing device. At Aerojet in the early 1950s, Guy C. Throner had independently come up with a design for a Claymore-like mine. 8/21/2019 Can you complete this Mine/Explosion themed typing challenge where typing a wrong letter ends the quiz? Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. The Claymore can also be victim-activated by booby-trapping it with a tripwire firing system for use in area denial operations. Testing concluded that the mine was effective out to approximately 110 yards (100 m), being capable of hitting 10% of the attacking force. He worked with Don Kennedy and the two men submitted a 30-page proposal in response to Picatinny's RFP. Their appearance is similar to the Claymore mine.[9]. The weapon and all its accessories are carried in an M7 bandolier ("Claymore bag"). The optimum effective range is 50 m (55 yd), at which the optimal balance is achieved between lethality and area coverage, with a hit probability of 30% on a man-sized target.[4]. The M18A1 Claymore mine with the M57 firing device and M4 electric blasting cap assembly. The firing device creates an electrical charge that fires the blasting cap placed inside the mine. Its lethality out to 50 metres arrives in the form of 650 steel balls and it is activated by remote control or trip wire. These performed poorly for two reasons. The mine is detonated as the enemy personnel approaches the killing zone. The M18 is a command detonated mine that is directional. The detonation proceeds at an explosive velocity of 8,092 m/s (26,550 ft/s). They did not spall from the shock of the explosive, but deformed into a useful aerodynamic shape similar to a .22 rimfire projectile. The firing system was found to not be wholly reliable, sometimes causing premature detonation of the explosive, so a work around was used to replace the M18 battery holder firing device as issued with a standard M57 firing device instead. Internally the mine consisted of a layer of 12-ounce (340 g) of C-3 explosive (the forerunner of C-4 explosive) in front of which was laid an array of 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) steel cubes. Some inert mines were green with a light blue band. Optimum range is 50 to 100 meters. The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine developed for the United States Armed Forces. Rambo is the fourth movie in the Rambo series, which is based on First Blood, a 1972 novel by Canadian-American novelist David Morrell. Detonation is initiated by a No 2 electric blasting cap. Because of the blast of explosive when a Claymore is fired, all personnel must be undercover when within 100 meters of the mine and no one should be within 16 meters of the point of detonation. A simple open sight on the top surface allows for aiming the mine. Type of Directional fragmentation anti-personnel mine. “Standing” behind a claymore isn’t a bright thing to do… it will badly screw up your day. [6] The patent was later the subject of a civil court case between MacLeod, the Army, and Aerojet, which further developed the Claymore design. After locating a suitably low-cost device, the engineers found that fumes from either the C-3 explosive or the cement used to glue the sight to the top of the mine corroded the plastic mirrors, rendering them unusable. [1], A second problem was the curvature of the mine. Controlled detonation may be accomplished by use of either an electrical or non-electrical firing system. [1], MacLeod applied for a patent for the mine on 18 January 1956 and was granted it in February 1961. The shape was developed through experimentation to deliver the optimum distribution of fragments at 50 m (55 yd) range. The development project completed, the Aerojet team sent the project back to Picatinny. When the mine explodes the balls fly out in a cone pattern, devastating anything in range. [1], Early pre-production mines were triggered using a battery pack, which had been used with the M18. It weighs 2 lb (0.91 kg) and has a 50 m (160 ft) effective range, similar to the full-size Claymore. 4 x 6" spike legs are attached to the bottom of the M18 Claymore system to allow the mine to be easily secured into soft grounds. Spring Loaded Claymore Mine Compatible with Nerf Wars and Airsoft Arm the Claymore with your choice of Toy Ammo and Set Up Remote Control Detonate on your Foes or have them Mechanically Trigger the Trip Wire Crush your Opponents, Scare your Friends, Have a Blast! The Picatinny criteria for the weapon were as follows: The requirement for kinetic energy was based on the fact that 58-foot pounds is required to deliver a potentially lethal injury. A simple open sight on the top surface allows for aiming the mine. The 100-foot (30 m) M4 electric firing wire on a green plastic spool is provided in each bandolier. PADMINE is an anti-personnel directional fragmentation mine produced by the United Kingdom, similar to the Claymore in cosmetic design with two swivelling legs, inserted into soft-ground. It is packed in a Claymore bag with inert M10 simulated detonator cap wire, an M57 "clacker" firing control, and an M40 circuit test kit. Detonation is initiated by a No 2 electric blasting cap. The M18 was 9.25-inch (235 mm) long and 3.27-inch (83 mm) high, held in a plastic case with three folding spike legs on the bottom. In 1954 Picatinny Arsenal issued a request for proposals (RFP) to improve the M18 as a more effective weapon. View of the complete M18 Claymore anti-personnel mine kit, Front left side view of an M18 Claymore mine, A US Army team addresses their M18 Claymore mine, A piece of scrap metal showcases the results of three M18 Claymore blasts, A US Army specialist adds the blasting cap to an M18 Claymore mine, An M18 Claymore mine is readied; note suspended position, Front right side view of an M18 Claymore mine, An explosion from a detonated M18 Claymore mine viewed at distance, US Army instructional sheet on M18 Claymore mine operation, US Army instructional sheet covering the basic components of the M18 Claymore mine, Authored By: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB and Dan Alex | Last Edited: It is used primarily in ambushes and as an anti-infiltration device against enemy infantry. Explosives researcher Norman A. MacLeod used it to design a weapon to counter human-wave assaults, such as those waged by Chinese soldiers against Americans in the Korean War. One of the first improvements was to replace the steel cubes with 7⁄32-inch (5.6 mm) hardened 52100 alloy ball bearings. It has the surface space of an average smartphone and includes a Picatinny rail for camera, laser, or other attachments. M18 Claymore The M18 Claymore, a directional fragmentation mine, is 8-1/2 inches long, 1-3/8 inches wide, 3-1/4 inches high, and weighs 3-1/2 pounds. In fact, so long as the operator can find a way to actuate the blasting caps, the M18 will trigger. In early 2015, the U.S. Army began testing a smaller version of the Claymore called the Mini-Multi-Purpose Infantry Munition (M-MPIMS). Internally the mine contains a layer of C-4 explosive behind a matrix of about seven hundred 1⁄8-inch-diameter (3.2 mm) steel balls set into an epoxy resin. The initial versions of the mine used two pairs of wire legs produced from number 9 wire. The blasting cap detonates the C4 explosive in the mine, scattering small steel balls or discs in a 45 deg .angle from the front of the mine. The Claymore mine is typically deployed in one of three modes: Controlled, Uncontrolled, or Time-delayed. [23] June 26 : The third highest ranking Sri Lankan military officer, Major General Parami Kulatunga was wounded in an attack by LTTE and died after being taken to the hospital. Schardin also spent time researching a "trench mine" that used a directional fragmentation effect. Later a Philadelphia company, Molded Plastic Insulation Company, took over the manufacture of the firing device for the first large-scale production run producing a plastic device.[1]. Using a homemade chronograph, the engineers clocked the balls at 3,775 feet (1,151 m) per second. The Arsenal bid it out to various component suppliers. Bill Kincheloe came up with the idea of using a "Tiny Tim" toggle generator, of the type used with a number of Navy rockets. The claymore mine training consisted of emplacing a claymore, inserting the blasting cap and detonating the mine from a short distance away. [1] These fragments are moderately effective up to a range of 100 m (110 yd), with a hit probability of around 10% on a prone man-sized 1.3-square-foot (0.12 m2) target. When a sheet of explosive detonates in contact with a heavy backing surface (for example, a metal plate), the resulting blast is primarily directed away from the surface in a single direction. 4 x 6″ spike legs are attached to the bottom of the M18 Claymore system to allow the mine to be easily secured into soft grounds. The M18 directional fragmentation anti-personnel mine, developed by Cardoen of Chile, contains 626 grams of explosives, surrounded by 607 AP fragmentation units providing a 60 degree arc of fire, with a 50-250 metre lethal range. In comparison, the other anti-personnel weapons of the Vietnam War available to the US Army was the M67 fragmentation hand grenade, this having a kill-zone of up to 16.5 feet (though lobbed distance was limited to the thrower's arm ability), and the M79 single-shot grenade launcher, a pinpointed weapon sending a 40mm high-explosive (HE) grenade upwards of 1,149 feet down range - though these were similarly limited with a kill range of about 20 feet. At 55 yards (50 m), this increased to 30%. The case has the words "FRONT TOWARD ENEMY" embossed on the front of the mine. This was determined experimentally by Bledsoe, through a large number of test firings. Firstly, the hardened steel balls spalled into fragments when hit by the shock of the explosion; the fragments were neither aerodynamic enough nor large enough to perform effectively. This was found to be undesirable for a number of reasons. on a Claymore mine with the blasting cap inserted in the detonation well. The M18A1 Claymore mine has a horizontally convex green plastic case (inert training versions are blue). Initially, detonation of early M18 Claymore systems was by way of an electrically-actuated firing device issued with each mine. After Bledsoe left the project to work at the Rheem corporation, William Kincheloe, another engineer, came onto the Claymore project. Italy produces the DAF M6 and DAF M7 directional fragmentation mines, weighing 18 and 10 kilograms respectively, with trip wire or remote control detonation. Examples include former Soviet Union models MON-50, MON-90, MON-100, and MON-200, as well as MRUD (Serbia), MAPED F1 (France), and Mini MS-803 (South Africa). Dr. John Bledsoe led the initial project. [1], By the spring of 1956, Aerojet had a near-final design. The M18a1 Claymore can be attached to a trip wire or set off by a timer. Many countries have developed and used mines like the Claymore. When a Defending Operator touches a Claymore beam, the Claymore explodes after a half second delay. In 1960 it was type standardized as the M18A1. Anything exposed within a … Controlled Mode (also known as Command Detonation) The mine is detonated by the operator as the forward edge of the enemy approaches a point within the killing zone (20 to 30 meters (65 to 100 ft)) where maximum casualties can be inflicted. [1] Originally an aluminum box was used to hold the generator. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Anti-personnel mines are used in a similar manner to anti-tank mines, in static "mine fields" along national borders or in defense of strategic positions as described in greater detail in the land mine article. It is not clear if the United States Picatinny Arsenal took the concept from the Canadian weapon and asked Norman MacLeod to develop it, or if he developed the design independently and presented it to them. Using dyes to test various plastics for leaks, they found a suitable plastic called Durex 1661½, which could be easily molded into a case. The M57 firing device (colloquially referred to as the "clacker") is included with each mine. The fragments can travel up to 250 m (270 yd). [7] Given the requirements of weight and fragment density, approximately 700 fragments were needed, with the ability to aim the mine with an accuracy of around two feet (0.61 m) at the center of the target zone. Two pairs of scissor legs attached to the bottom support the mine and allow it to be aimed vertically. The force of the explosion deforms the relatively soft steel balls into a shape similar to a .22 rimfire projectile. It was too large to be a practical infantry weapon and was relatively ineffective, with a maximum effective range of only 20 to 30 yards (about 20 to 30 meters).[1]. He named his antipersonnel mine the claymore, after the two-handed sword wielded by his Scottish ancestors. Chile; China; Finland; Hungary; Italy; Japan; Malaysia; Pakistan; Philippines; Poland; Russia; Serbia; South Africa; South Korea; Sweden; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States; Vietnam; Yugoslavia, M18 "Claymore" - US Base Series Designation. The second change was to use a poured plastic matrix to briefly contain the blast from the explosive, so that more of the blast energy was converted into projectile velocity. It was not until the improved M18A1 was developed that the Claymore became a widely used weapon. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control and shoots a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun. The cubes were embedded in five pounds of Composition B explosive. The M18 can still be detonated in the electrical or non-electrical fashion which lends herself to be used as a dedicated mine or as an "individual weapon". Rambo was preceded by First Blood (1982) (1982), Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985) (1985), and Rambo III (1988) (1988). [5] It lacked the later version's iconic "FRONT TOWARD ENEMY" marking. The M18a1 claymore mine is based around a 1.5lb slab of plastic explosives packed behind 700 steel balls. It does not contain an explosive or pyrotechnic filler of any kind. Since the Claymore has a curved rectangular shape, once fired, plastic explosive hurls 700 steel balls out in a 60° radius. Schardin spent some time developing the discovery as a side-attack anti-tank weapon, but development was incomplete at the end of the war. The Misznay–Schardin effect was independently discovered during World War II by Misznay, a Hungarian, and Hubert Schardin, a German. The development of the M18A1 mine dates back to work done during World War II. They were awarded a $375,000 development contract to improve the Claymore design. Test your knowledge on this just for fun quiz and compare your score to others. At its optimized range of 30 m (98 ft), the fragmentation zone is 23 m (75 ft) wide and 2 m (6.6 ft) high, with a minimum of five hits per 1 m2 (11 sq ft). The case has the words \"Front Toward Enemy\" embossed on the front of the mine. The steel balls are projected in a 60° fan-shaped pattern that is 6.5 feet (2.0 m) high and 50 m (55 yd) wide at a range of 50 m (55 yd). The explosion is primarily directed forwards, inflicting damage in a 180 degree arc in front of the mine, but the explosion also deals full damage to players in a circle with a 1 meter radius around the Claymore. Quiz by Jeffcotton Fire the mine. The M18 Claymore, a directional fragmentation mine, is 8-1/2 inches long, 1-3/8 inches wide, 3-1/4 inches high, and weighs 3-1/2 pounds. Its inventor, Norman MacLeod, named the mine after a large medieval Scottish sword. They are not reported as mines; however, the emplacing unit must ensure that the mines are removed, detonated, or turned over to a relieving unit. Remove the dust cover from the firing device and firing wire. The light blue or black plastic M33 Inert Anti-Personnel Mine is the training and practice version of the M18A1 Claymore. With this change, the velocity improved to 3,995 feet (1,218 m) per second. The M18A1 Claymore mine has a horizontally convex green plastic case (inert training versions are blue). It comes with all the components of a real Claymore kit packed in an M7 bandolier. A ferrite choke was added to prevent RF signals and lightning from triggering the mine.[1]. You set it … This slightly improves the fragment velocity, and protects the steel fragments from the corrosive explosive. Through Picatinny, the United States Army accepted the weapon into service as the M18 Claymore and approximately 10,000 were produced. The mine contains 700 steel spheres (10.5 grains) and 1-1/2 pound layer of composition C-4 explosive and is initiated by a No. a. A bandolier is issued for the carrying of M18 Claymores and also contains an instruction sheet. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. The mine was barely more than a prototype and was not considered a "reliable casualty producer"; like the Phoenix it had an effective range of only 90 feet (27 m). It was first used in Vietnam in the spring or early summer 1966. The mine can be detonated by any mechanism that activates the blasting cap. The shape was developed through experimentation to deliver the optimum distribution of fragments at 50 m (Bad rounding hereScript error yd) range. Captain Phillip Esposito and First Lieutenant Louis Allen, from a New York Army National Guard unit of the United States 42nd Infantry Division, were mortally wounded in Esposito's office by a Claymore mine and died. When detonated, C-4 rapidly decomposes to release nitrogen, water and carbon oxides as well as other gases. Two pairs of scissor legs attached to the bottom support the mine and allow it to be aimed vertically. Throner, Kennedy, Bledsoe, and Kincheloe at Aerojet, International directional fragmentation AP mines, AIM-120B/C Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), List of individual weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces, "Patent 2,972,949 ANTI-PERSONNEL FRAGMENTATION WEAPON", "Engineering the Nonlethal Artillery Projectile", RPGs, grenades and dummies: 9 soldier-tested gadgets, "VS-DAFM 7 Italian anti-personnel "Claymore" mine", "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) – Ammunition for the Royal Saudi Land Forces (RSLF) - The Official Home of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency", "FFV-013 Swedish anti-personnel "Claymore" mine", "LI-12/Truppmina-12 Swedish anti-personnel "Claymore" mine", International Coalition to Ban Landmines – Countries using Claymore type mines (PDF), GlobalSecurity.org – FM 23-23 ANTIPERSONNEL MINE M18A1 AND M18 (CLAYMORE) Field Manual, AC-130H/U/J/W Spectre/Spooky II/Ghostrider/Stinger II, MC-130E/H/J/P Combat Talon I/Combat Talon II/Commando II/Combat Shadow, RC-135S/U/V/W COBRA BALL/Combat Sent/Rivet Joint, AGM-84H/K Standoff Land Attack Missile - Expanded Response, AGM-86B/C/D Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), AGM-88A/B/C High-speed Anti-radiation Missile (HARM), AGM-114 Hellfire Air-to-Surface Missile (ASM), AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M18_Claymore_mine&oldid=991665464, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Peep sight on early models, later a knife edge sight, It must weigh less than 3.5 pounds (1.6 kilograms), It must throw enough fragments so that at a range of 55 yards (50 m) it achieves a 100 percent strike rate on a 1.3 square feet (0.12 m, The fragment area must not be more than 8 feet (2.4 m) high and no more than 60 degrees wide, Fragments must have a velocity of 4,000 feet (1,200 m) per second providing 58, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 05:55. 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Not sell any of the sight are fuse wells set at 45 degrees that used a directional anti-personnel mine for! Total the mine weighed about 2.43-pound ( 1.10 kg ), this increased to 30 % plastic case inert. Preferably to the firing device and firing wire through Picatinny, the engineers clocked the balls at 3,775 (..., through a large number of experiments, the engineers settled on Devcon-S steel-filled epoxy to the! Were embedded in five pounds of composition B explosive 40 feet was experimentally... 55 yd ) range undesirable for a number of test firings ( RFP to! Tripwire, or by a timer was used to hold the generator set is packed in each bandolier the sword! Balls in place been produced 650 steel balls into a shape similar to mine. `` leaked '' between the fragmentation matrix and the explosive, but development incomplete... Into it is used primarily in ambushes and as an anti-infiltration device against infantry... ( 1.10 kg ), and protects the steel cubes with 7⁄32-inch ( mm... Use in area denial operations as a more effective weapon that is directional out in a 60° arc front... During testing wide dispersal of lethal steel ball bearings is similar to a.22 rimfire.... Fire plan was type standardized as the enemy personnel approaches the killing zone type! B explosive the shape was developed through experimentation to deliver the optimum distribution of at. By Misznay, a German, laser, or Time-delayed balls into shape! Instruction sheet prevent RF signals and lightning from triggering the mine used two pairs of scissor attached. Don Kennedy and the two men submitted a 30-page proposal in response Picatinny... Decomposes to release nitrogen, water and carbon oxides as well as gases!